Write 150 words about the video below. I did ÿa copy and pasted of the transcripts to read. Do not need title page. Need cite and reference to support answer. What was the video about? What did you think was interesting? What did you learn anything new from the video? ExplainVideo citiationCourt, trials, and sentencing: Due processÿ[Video file]. (2012). Retrieved April 27, 2017, from https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=18566&xtid=48004Transcript reading beginsIf whatÿyouÿknowÿaboutÿtheÿAmericanÿcourtsystemÿcomesÿfromÿwatchingÿtelevision,ÿyouprobablyÿthinkÿit’sÿaÿspeedy,ÿefficient,ÿandÿdramafilledÿprocess.ÿBadÿguysÿgetÿbooked.ÿTheÿtrialseemsÿtoÿcomeÿimmediatelyÿafter.ÿLawyersÿyellandÿposture.Lie,ÿlie,ÿlie.Theÿjuryÿreadsÿitsÿverdictÿandÿwe’reÿdone.ÿButÿinreality,ÿitÿcanÿbeÿaÿslow,ÿtechnical,ÿandÿevenÿboringprocessÿwithÿseveralÿstepsÿandÿmanyÿmonthsbeforeÿtheÿfinalÿoutcomeÿisÿknown.ÿInÿtheÿUnitedStates,ÿcourtsÿdecideÿcasesÿthroughÿanÿadversarialsystem.ÿTwoÿparties,ÿtheÿprosecutionÿandÿthedefense,ÿofferÿtheirÿversionÿofÿeventsÿandÿarguetheÿcaseÿbeforeÿtheÿcourt.ÿTheÿdisputeÿisÿdecidedinÿfavorÿofÿtheÿpartyÿwhoÿoffersÿtheÿmostÿsoundandÿcompellingÿargumentsÿbasedÿonÿtheÿlaw.WhileÿStatesÿdiffersÿsomewhatÿinÿtheÿexactprocedure,ÿthereÿareÿbasicÿsimilaritiesÿthroughouttheÿcountry.ÿThisÿisÿtheÿstoryÿofÿtheÿAmericancriminalÿcourtÿsystem.ÿFairnessÿdemandsÿthateveryoneÿwhoÿentersÿtheÿsystemÿunderstandsÿthenatureÿofÿtheÿproceedings.ÿTheÿUSÿConstitutionprovidesÿthoseÿaccusedÿofÿaÿcrimeÿwithÿaÿnumberofÿsignificantÿright.ÿAllÿtheseÿrightsÿareÿaimedÿatprotectingÿindividualsÿfromÿunreasonablegovernmentÿactionÿandÿmaintainingÿtheÿfairnessofÿtheÿcriminalÿjusticeÿsystem.ÿThereÿareÿmanyproceduresÿthatÿmustÿbeÿfollowed.Afterÿtheÿinvestigationÿandÿarrest,ÿitÿisÿtheÿjobÿoftheÿcourtÿsystemÿtoÿdetermineÿwhetherÿtheaccusedÿisÿguiltyÿorÿnot.ÿThisÿprocessÿbeginsÿwithÿaseriesÿofÿsteps,ÿoftenÿcalledÿpre-trialÿprocedures.Andÿtheÿfirstÿstepÿisÿforÿtheÿprosecutorÿtoÿdecidewhetherÿthereÿisÿenoughÿevidenceÿtoÿsupportÿaconviction.ÿInÿotherÿwords,ÿprobableÿcause.Wheneverÿsomeoneÿisÿaccusedÿofÿcommittingÿacrimeÿthatÿisÿgoingÿtoÿbeÿpresentedÿtoÿaÿgrandÿjuryforÿindictment,ÿthey’reÿentitledÿtoÿaÿpreliminaryhearing.ÿAndÿthatÿisÿwhere aÿjudicialÿofficerÿmakestheÿdeterminationÿwhetherÿorÿnotÿthereÿisÿindeedprobableÿcauseÿforÿthisÿcaseÿtoÿmoveÿforward.Thereÿareÿtwoÿwaysÿtoÿbringÿcharges.ÿInÿsomestates,ÿtheÿprosecutorÿmayÿpresentÿtheÿcaseÿtoÿagrandÿjury.ÿInÿthatÿprocess,ÿaÿdesignatedÿgroupÿofcitizensÿdecidesÿwhether,ÿbasedÿonÿtheprosecutor’sÿevidence,ÿthe caseÿshouldÿproceedÿtotrial.ÿIfÿtheÿgrandÿjuryÿbelievesÿenoughÿevidenceexistsÿtoÿsupportÿcharges,ÿtheÿsuspectÿwillÿbeindicted.ÿAnÿindictmentÿisÿaÿformalÿdocumentchargingÿsomeoneÿwithÿaÿcrime.Theÿtypicalÿtrialÿjury,ÿof course, isÿ12.ÿGrandÿjury’sare usuallyÿa lotÿlargerÿthanÿthat.ÿAndÿtheirfunctionÿisÿto findÿprobableÿcauseÿtoÿholdÿthepersonÿforÿtrial.Ifÿtheÿprosecutorÿproceedsÿwithoutÿaÿgrandÿjury,ÿadocumentÿcalledÿaÿcriminalÿcomplaintÿformallychargesÿtheÿaccused.ÿThenÿaÿpreliminaryÿhearingmayÿbeÿheldÿtoÿdetermineÿwhetherÿthereÿisenoughÿevidenceÿtoÿrequireÿaÿtrial.Oneÿofÿtheÿprimaryÿrolesÿthatÿweÿhaveÿisÿpublicsafety.ÿAndÿweÿhaveÿtoÿmakeÿquickÿdecisionswhetherÿorÿnotÿthisÿpersonÿisÿaÿthreatÿtoÿthecommunity.ÿAndÿifÿtheÿpersonÿhasÿengagedÿincrimesÿofÿviolenceÿagainstÿaÿperson,ÿobviously,thatÿthreatÿlevelÿisÿthereÿand theÿextentÿofÿthecrimeÿcouldÿmakeÿthatÿlevelÿhigh.Soÿwhenÿthoseÿsituationsÿhappen,ÿtheÿlawprovidesÿusÿwithÿaÿtoolÿofÿgoingÿoutÿandÿarrestingthemÿorÿgoingÿtoÿaÿjudgeÿandÿgettingÿaÿcriminalcomplaintÿandÿarrestingÿthem.ÿAndÿweÿputÿtheminÿcustodyÿandÿtheyÿloseÿtheirÿfreedom.ÿAndbecauseÿweÿdon’tÿwantÿthemÿinÿsocietypotentiallyÿcommittingÿanotherÿviolentÿact,ÿorfleeingÿafterÿthey’veÿcommittedÿaÿviolentÿact.Grandÿjuryÿproceedingsÿareÿclosedÿandÿsecret.Also,ÿaÿjudge isÿnotÿpresentÿduringÿgrandÿjurydeliberations.ÿTheÿprosecutingÿattorneyÿisÿthelegalÿadviserÿandÿexaminesÿallÿwitnessesÿwhotestifyÿbeforeÿit,ÿincludingÿanyÿdefendantÿordefenseÿwitness.Aÿpreliminaryÿhearingÿisÿopenÿtoÿtheÿpublicÿandtheÿaccusedÿhasÿtheÿrightÿtoÿbeÿrepresentedÿbyÿanattorneyÿwhoÿcanÿcrossÿexamineÿwitnessesÿandpresentÿfavorableÿevidence.Youÿcan be arrestedÿandÿgetÿlockedÿupÿveryquicklyÿinÿthatÿprocess.ÿButÿasÿtimeÿgoesÿon,ÿyouhaveÿmoreÿofÿaÿthoroughÿanalysisÿaboutÿwhetherorÿnotÿthatÿpersonÿisÿbeingÿtreated.ÿAndÿtheÿstatewouldÿhaveÿtoÿputÿonÿevidenceÿtoÿshowÿthatprobableÿcauseÿexistsÿthatÿperson’sÿreallycommittedÿtheÿcrime.ÿAndÿthenÿthatÿpersonÿcanbeÿmoreÿformallyÿchargedÿlaterÿon.Ifÿaÿgrandÿjuryÿfindsÿprobableÿcause,ÿanindictmentÿisÿconfirmedÿandÿfiled.ÿIfÿaÿjudgeÿfindsprobableÿcauseÿduringÿtheÿpreliminaryÿhearing,ÿaformalÿchargingÿinstrumentÿcalledÿaÿBillÿofInformationÿwillÿbeÿissued.ÿAndÿtheÿprosecutionwillÿcontinue.ÿSoÿevenÿthoughÿthey areÿdifferent,grandÿjuriesÿandÿpreliminaryÿhearingsÿhaveÿthesameÿpurpose–ÿtoÿdecideÿifÿthereÿisÿenoughevidenceÿtoÿformallyÿchargeÿsomeoneÿwithÿacrime.Duringÿtheÿtimeÿleadingÿupÿtoÿtheÿtrial,ÿtheaccusedÿmayÿhaveÿtoÿstayÿinÿjail,ÿorÿmay begrantedÿaÿpretrialÿrelease.ÿThisÿdependsÿonÿthejurisdictionÿinÿwhichÿtheÿpersonÿisÿindicted,ÿtheuniqueÿdetailsÿofÿtheÿcase,ÿandÿwhetherÿorÿnotÿtheaccusedÿisÿlikelyÿtoÿfleeÿbeforeÿtheÿtrial.Ifÿtheÿcrimeÿisÿveryÿserious,ÿusuallyÿwe’reÿtalkingaboutÿhomicidesÿorÿevenÿmultipleÿhomicides,ÿbailmightÿbeÿdeniedÿentirely.ÿOnÿtheÿotherÿendÿofÿthespectrum,ÿpeopleÿthatÿdon’tÿhaveÿaÿcriminalrecordÿtoÿspeakÿofÿareÿgenerallyÿreleasedÿonÿtheirownÿrecognizanceÿwithout theÿpostingÿof bail.Ifÿbail is setÿhigh,ÿwhatÿhappensÿgenerallyÿisÿaÿbailbondsmanÿwillÿpayÿtheÿbailÿandÿtheÿdefendantÿisrequiredÿtoÿpostÿ10%ÿofÿthatÿbond.ÿAndÿwhat thebailÿbondsmanÿdoes,ÿofÿcourse,ÿisÿassureÿthatÿthedefendantÿappearsÿatÿtrial,ÿbecauseÿthey’llÿlosetheirÿmoneyÿifÿtheÿdefendant’sÿnotÿthere.ÿSoÿiftheyÿdon’tÿshow,ÿtheyÿgoÿafterÿthem.Bailÿmoneyÿisÿpaidÿtoÿtheÿcourtÿinÿorderÿtoÿmakesureÿtheÿdefendantÿwillÿappearÿwhenÿtoldÿtoÿdoÿso.Bailÿmayÿbeÿpaidÿinÿcash,ÿcredit,ÿorÿproperty.ÿTheEighthÿAmendmentÿtoÿtheÿConstitutionÿrequiresthatÿbailÿnotÿbeÿexcessive.Whenÿyouÿareÿlookingÿatÿanÿindividualÿandÿsettingbond,ÿyouÿlookÿatÿeachÿcaseÿindividually.ÿThere’snotÿaÿsetÿofÿrulesÿthat youÿcanÿnecessarilyÿemployinÿeveryÿcase.ÿButÿyouÿlookÿatÿtheÿindividual,ÿyouseeÿtheÿcrimeÿthatÿthey’reÿchargedÿwith.ÿYouÿlookatÿtheirÿage,ÿtheirÿhealth,ÿtheirÿcriminalÿrecord,theirÿstandingÿinÿtheÿcommunity,ÿwhetherÿorÿnotthey’reÿlikelyÿtoÿcommitÿanotherÿcrimeÿifÿtheyÿdomakeÿtheÿbond.ÿYouÿalsoÿlookÿatÿtheirÿfinancialcondition.Whetherÿheldÿinÿjailÿorÿallowedÿtoÿpostÿbail,ÿthenextÿstepÿforÿtheÿdefendantÿisÿtheÿarrangement,ÿortheÿappearanceÿbeforeÿaÿjudgeÿtoÿfaceÿformalcharges.ÿAcceptableÿpleasÿvaryÿamongjurisdictions,ÿbutÿtheyÿgenerallyÿincludeÿguilty,ÿnotguilty,ÿandÿnoloÿcontendere,ÿorÿnoÿcontest.Prosecutorsÿareÿlimitedÿbyÿtheÿfacts.ÿTheyÿcanonlyÿchargeÿcrimesÿthatÿtheÿevidenceÿsupports.Andÿsoÿtheyÿareÿtoÿsomeÿextentÿlimitedÿtoÿwhattheÿinvestigationÿhasÿrevealed.ÿSoÿtheyÿhaveÿtochargeÿbasedÿonÿwhatÿtheÿpoliceÿhaveÿfoundÿin theÿpoliceÿreport.Now,ÿthatÿdoesn’tÿmeanÿtheyÿcan’tÿfindÿmoreÿthanoneÿchargeÿthatÿcomesÿoutÿofÿoneÿcriminalepisode.ÿAndÿtheyÿoftenÿdo.ÿAndÿtheÿreasonÿtheydoÿthatÿisÿthey’reÿtryingÿtoÿgetÿtheÿdefendantÿtopleadÿguiltyÿinÿexchangeÿforÿdroppingÿsomeÿofÿthecharges.ÿButÿthey’reÿconstrained.ÿTheyÿcan’tchargeÿwithÿanything.ÿTheÿevidenceÿin theinvestigationÿhasÿtoÿsupportÿtheÿcharge.Aÿdefendant’sÿrightÿtoÿcounselÿisÿconstitutionalandÿguaranteedÿbyÿtheÿSixthÿAmendment.ÿSoÿiftheÿdefendantÿcan’tÿaffordÿanÿattorney,ÿoneÿwillÿbeappointedÿwithoutÿcharge.Thereÿareÿdifferencesÿinÿtheÿlawsÿregardingÿadultsandÿjuvenilesÿinÿcriminalÿcases.ÿJuveniles,ÿexceptforÿtheÿmostÿseriousÿoffenses,ÿareÿentitledÿtoproceedingsÿinÿjuvenileÿcourt,ÿwhichÿisÿsupposedtoÿbeÿmoreÿrehabilitativeÿandÿlessÿpunitive.ÿSomoreÿfocusedÿtowardsÿtreatmentÿandÿcounselingasÿopposedÿtoÿlongÿsentencesÿinÿcustody.Andÿasÿpartÿofÿthat,ÿinÿmanyÿstates,ÿwhenÿpolicetakeÿaÿjuvenile,ÿthatÿisÿaÿpersonÿunderÿtheÿageÿof18,ÿintoÿcustodyÿforÿinterrogation,ÿthereÿaresometimesÿadditionalÿsafeguards.ÿSomeÿstateswillÿrequire,ÿatÿleastÿforÿveryÿyoungÿchildren,ÿthatÿaparentÿbeÿpresentÿorÿaÿlawyerÿbeÿpresent.ÿSoÿthereareÿadditionalÿsafeguardsÿinÿmostÿstatesÿandÿmostjurisdictionsÿwhenÿjuvenilesÿareÿinvolved.Aÿtrialÿinÿjuvenileÿcourtÿisÿcalledÿanÿadjudicatoryhearing.ÿDuringÿtheÿhearing,ÿtheÿjudgeÿwillÿlistentoÿtestimonyÿfromÿallÿofÿtheÿwitnesses.ÿTheÿjudgewillÿthenÿreviewÿanyÿadditionalÿevidenceÿanddecideÿifÿtheÿjuvenileÿisÿnotÿguilty,ÿguilty,ÿorÿguiltyofÿsomethingÿlessÿthanÿtheÿoriginalÿcharge.Bothÿjuvenilesÿandÿadultsÿcanÿpleaÿbargain.ÿThatisÿanÿagreementÿwhereÿtheÿprosecutorÿoffersÿthedefendantÿtheÿopportunityÿtoÿpleadÿguilty,ÿusuallytoÿaÿlesserÿcharge,ÿorÿwithÿaÿrecommendationÿofÿalighterÿthanÿtheÿmaximumÿsentence.ÿAÿlargemajorityÿofÿcasesÿareÿsettledÿbeforeÿtrialÿwithÿapleaÿbargain.Ifÿaÿpersonÿentersÿintoÿaÿpleaÿagreement,ÿandÿthatagreementÿputsÿaÿjudgeÿinÿaÿpositionÿwhereÿtheycanÿfairlyÿadministerÿjustice,ÿit’sÿaÿgoodÿthing.ÿAndit’sÿaÿgoodÿthingÿforÿaÿlotÿofÿreason.ÿIt’sÿaÿgoodthingÿfor,ÿnumberÿone,ÿitÿsavesÿtimeÿinÿtheÿcourtsystem.ÿNumberÿtwo,ÿitÿgivesÿtheÿdefendantÿtheabilityÿtoÿadmitÿtheirÿguilt.Ifÿthereÿisÿnoÿpleaÿbargainÿandÿtheÿaccusedmaintainsÿhisÿinnocence,ÿtheÿcaseÿmovesÿtoÿaformalÿtrial.ÿThereÿareÿmanyÿconstitutionalÿandstatutoryÿrightsÿthatÿtheÿaccusedÿisÿprovided.Someÿincludeÿtheÿrightÿtoÿaÿspeedyÿandÿpublictrial.ÿTheÿSixthÿAmendmentÿguaranteesÿanimpartialÿjury.ÿItÿalsoÿgivesÿtheÿdefendantÿtheÿrighttoÿknowÿwhoÿtheÿaccusersÿareÿandÿwhatÿthey arecharging.Those areÿveryÿimportantÿrightsÿthatÿaÿdefendanthas.ÿButÿjustÿbuiltÿinÿthroughoutÿtheÿprocessÿisÿthedefendant’sÿrightÿtoÿconfrontation.ÿThatÿmeansÿtocrossÿexamineÿorÿquestionÿanyÿwitnessÿthat thestateÿmightÿpresent.ÿAndÿthat,ÿofÿcourse,ÿissomethingÿI’mÿnotÿsureÿdefendantsÿunderstandwhenÿtheyÿcomeÿtoÿtrialÿeither.ÿIÿthinkÿwhatÿmostpeopleÿhave seenÿisÿwhatÿthey’veÿseenÿontelevision.ÿAndÿthatÿisÿnotÿaÿtotallyÿrealisticversionÿofÿhowÿtrialsÿareÿgoingÿtoÿgoÿforwardÿandwhatÿyourÿactualÿrightsÿare.Pretrialÿmotions,ÿwhichÿareÿargumentsÿconcerningwhatÿisÿandÿisÿnotÿadmissibleÿduringÿaÿtrial,ÿaremadeÿafterÿtheÿpreliminaryÿhearingÿbutÿbeforeÿthecaseÿisÿtakenÿtoÿtrial.ÿTheyÿareÿpresentedÿtoÿthecriminalÿcourtÿjudge.ÿPretrialÿmotionsÿcanÿbemadeÿbyÿbothÿtheÿprosecutionÿandÿtheÿdefenseandÿareÿmadeÿinÿorderÿtoÿsetÿlimitsÿonÿtheÿtrial.Forÿexample,ÿtheÿdefenseÿorÿprosecutionÿmayargueÿthatÿaÿparticularÿpersonÿshouldÿorÿshouldnotÿbeÿallowedÿtoÿtestifyÿduringÿtheÿtrial.ÿPretrialmotionsÿcanÿalsoÿbeÿmadeÿtoÿdismissÿtheÿcriminaltrialÿentirely.Thereÿcanÿbeÿsomeÿrealÿgroundsÿforÿdismissalÿofindictmentsÿorÿcharges.ÿThey’reÿnotÿthatÿfrequent,butÿthereÿareÿdefectiveÿindictments.ÿTheyÿaremissingÿveryÿimportantÿpartsÿofÿtheÿcrimeÿthatsomeoneÿisÿchargedÿwith,ÿor theÿlocationÿwhereit’sÿcharged,ÿor theÿnameÿofÿtheÿallegedÿvictim.Iÿconsiderÿtheÿpre-trialÿtoÿbeÿaÿveryÿcriticalÿstageÿoftheÿproceedings,ÿbecauseÿIÿthinkÿthatÿisÿwhenÿallofÿusÿcomeÿtogetherÿandÿgetÿanÿunderstandingbasedÿonÿtheÿmotionsÿthatÿareÿpresentedÿasÿtowhatÿisÿleftÿorÿwhatÿisÿgoingÿtoÿgoÿforwardÿandÿbeheardÿby aÿjury.ÿSoÿIÿthinkÿthat’sÿveryÿimportantthatÿthereÿareÿpretrialÿmotionsÿbroughtÿforwardandÿdeterminationsÿtheÿjudge,ÿsoÿthatÿtheÿlawyerscanÿadviseÿtheirÿclientsÿwhatÿtheÿissuesÿareÿreallygoingÿtoÿbeÿbeforeÿtheÿjuryÿthatÿtheyÿneedÿtoconcentrateÿon.Someÿofÿtheÿmostÿdifficultÿandÿcomplexÿpretrialmotionsÿareÿthoseÿtestingÿtheÿadmissibilityÿofwitnessÿtestimony.Testimonyÿcanÿbeÿdealingÿwithÿtheÿsuppressionÿofevidence.ÿTheÿsearchÿofÿaÿcarÿorÿifÿlawenforcementÿtookÿpropertyÿfromÿyou,ÿseizedpropertyÿthatÿviolatedÿyourÿrightsÿofÿprivacy.ÿAndthoseÿareÿsearchÿandÿseizureÿissues.ÿIfÿlawenforcementÿcameÿintoÿyourÿhouseÿandÿseizedevidence,ÿdidÿtheyÿhaveÿaÿsearchÿwarrantÿtoÿdothat?ÿIfÿtheyÿdidn’tÿhaveÿone,ÿdidÿtheyÿneedÿone?Wasÿthere anÿexceptionÿtoÿtheÿrequirementÿofgettingÿsearchÿwarrants?Whileÿthe pretrialÿphaseÿmayÿlastÿdays,ÿweeks,ÿorevenÿmonths,ÿdependingÿonÿtheÿcomplexityÿofÿthecase,ÿitÿisÿaÿcriticalÿfirstÿstepÿinÿtheÿcriminalÿcourtsystem,ÿsafeguardingÿeveryone’sÿrightÿtoÿequalaccessÿandÿrepresentation.ÿAndÿonlyÿthenÿisÿthecaseÿreadyÿforÿtrial.Aÿjuryÿtrialÿbeginsÿwithÿtheÿselectionÿofÿmembersofÿtheÿcommunityÿinÿwhichÿtheÿaccusedÿisÿtried.ÿAjuryÿisÿusuallyÿmadeÿupÿofÿ12ÿpeopleÿwhoÿarechargedÿwithÿdecidingÿmattersÿofÿfactÿanddeliveringÿaÿverdictÿbasedÿonÿtheÿevidenceÿinÿacase.ÿTheÿprocessÿofÿselectingÿtheÿjuryÿisÿalsocalledÿvoirÿdire,ÿwhichÿmeansÿtoÿtellÿtheÿtruth.ÿItrefersÿtoÿtheÿprocessÿbyÿwhichÿprospectiveÿjurorsareÿquestionedÿaboutÿtheirÿbackgroundsÿandpotentialÿbiasesÿbeforeÿbeingÿchosenÿtoÿsitÿonÿajury.Onceÿbothÿsidesÿhaveÿapprovedÿtheÿrequirednumberÿofÿjurors,ÿtheyÿareÿswornÿandÿseatedÿintheÿjuryÿbox.ÿTheÿjudgeÿthenÿexplainsÿtheÿtrialprocedure,ÿtheÿbasicÿprinciplesÿofÿlaw,ÿandÿthejurors’ÿduties.ÿInÿorderÿtoÿconvict,ÿtheÿjuryÿmustÿbeconvincedÿofÿaÿdefendant’sÿguiltÿbeyondÿareasonableÿdoubt.I’mÿaÿbigÿfanÿofÿtheÿjuryÿsystem.ÿI’veÿalways,ÿinÿageneralÿsense,ÿfeltÿthatÿjuriesÿdoÿtheÿrightÿthing.Andÿtheyÿunderstandÿtheirÿobligations.ÿAndÿtheyunderstandÿthat theÿstateÿhasÿtheÿburdenÿto proveguilt.ÿAndÿwhenÿweÿdon’t,ÿwe lose,ÿusually.ÿAndÿweshould.Toÿyouÿinitiatingÿtheÿtrafficÿstopÿonÿmyÿclient,ÿmyclient–Inÿtheÿcourtroom,ÿtheÿprosecutionÿandÿdefenseargueÿagainstÿeachÿotherÿinÿthisÿadversarialprocess.ÿTheÿtheoryÿisÿthatÿtheÿtruthÿwillÿemergeÿifeachÿpartyÿisÿgivenÿaÿchanceÿtoÿpresentÿtheÿfullrangeÿofÿevidence,ÿfacts,ÿandÿargumentsÿbeforeÿaneutralÿjudge.ItÿisÿmyÿjobÿtoÿdetermineÿwhatÿtheÿlawÿisÿandÿtoÿdotheÿbestÿthatÿIÿcanÿtoÿinstructÿtheÿjuryÿasÿtoÿwhattheÿlawÿis.ÿAndÿthenÿtheyÿareÿtoÿtakeÿtheÿfactsÿthatthey haveÿdeterminedÿfrom theÿevidenceÿthatÿhasbeenÿpresentedÿat theÿtrialÿandÿapplyÿthoseÿfactstoÿtheÿlawÿthatÿIÿhadÿgivenÿthemÿtoÿreachÿtheirverdict.Theÿjudgeÿandÿtheÿlawyersÿplayÿtheÿleadÿrolesÿintheÿcourtroom,ÿbutÿthereÿareÿothersÿwhoÿassistÿintheÿadministrationÿofÿjustice.ÿTheÿcourtÿclerkkeepsÿtheÿscheduleÿandÿmakesÿsureÿthatÿeveryjudgmentÿisÿproperlyÿrecorded.ÿTheÿbailiffÿcallsÿthecourtÿtoÿsessionÿandÿmaintainsÿorder.ÿTheÿcourtreporterÿtranscribesÿanÿexactÿrecordÿofÿtheproceedings,ÿcertifyingÿitÿasÿanÿaccurateÿanÿofficialrecord.Iÿcouldÿnotÿdoÿmyÿjobÿwithoutÿaÿprofessionalÿstaffbehindÿmeÿtoÿtakeÿcareÿofÿwhatÿtheyÿneedÿtoÿtakecareÿof.Onceÿtheÿjuryÿisÿseated,ÿtheÿtrialÿbegins.ÿFirst,ÿtheprosecutorÿandÿdefenseÿattorneyÿoutlineÿthemajorÿobjectivesÿofÿtheirÿcasesÿinÿtheirÿopeningstatements.Theÿpurposeÿof anÿopeningÿstatementÿbyÿbothÿtheprosecutionÿand theÿdefenseÿisÿtoÿeducateÿtheÿjuryaboutÿwhatÿyou’reÿgoingÿtoÿtryÿtoÿprove.ÿIfÿit’sÿahomicideÿcase,ÿthenÿtheÿprosecutor’sÿgoingÿtoÿbetellingÿthe juryÿthatÿtheyÿintendÿtoÿproveÿthatÿthisdefendantÿcommittedÿeither aÿfirstÿdegreeÿorsecondÿdegreeÿmurderÿandÿwhyÿthat’sÿso.Theÿdefense,ÿonÿtheÿotherÿhand,ÿisÿgoingÿtoÿtellÿthejuryÿwhatÿtheirÿtheoryÿinÿtheÿcaseÿis.ÿSelfÿdefensemightÿbeÿanÿexampleÿofÿthat.ÿAndÿsoÿit’sÿdesignedtoÿeducateÿtheÿjuryÿaboutÿwhatÿbothÿtheÿstateÿandtheÿdefenseÿareÿgoingÿtoÿdoÿinÿtheÿtrialÿprocessitself.Afterÿtheÿopeningÿstatements,ÿtheÿprosecutorpresentsÿtheÿevidenceÿaccumulatedÿbyÿtheÿstateagainstÿtheÿaccused.ÿTheÿprosecutionÿcallswitnessesÿinÿdirectÿexamination.Onÿdirectÿexamination,ÿeitherÿtheÿstateÿorÿthedefenseÿputsÿonÿtheirÿwitnesses.ÿAndÿit’sÿtheirÿownwitnessÿtheyÿputÿon.ÿSoÿlet’sÿjustÿtakeÿtheprosecutionÿasÿanÿexample.ÿWhatÿthey’reÿdoingÿisputtingÿonÿwitnessesÿfavorableÿtoÿtheirÿside.ÿAndthey’reÿaskingÿthemÿquestionsÿthatÿwillÿsupporttheirÿtheoryÿofÿtheÿcase.ÿForÿinstance,ÿthatÿit’sÿapremeditatedÿkilling.ÿAndÿtheyÿareÿfriendlywitnesses.ÿTheÿprosecutionÿwouldn’tÿbeÿusingthemÿasÿaÿwitnessÿunlessÿtheyÿthoughtÿtheyÿweregoingÿtoÿhelpÿtheirÿcase.ÿSameÿisÿtrueÿofÿthedefense.Evidenceÿisÿgenerallyÿofÿtwoÿtypes–ÿphysicalevidenceÿandÿtheÿtestimonyÿofÿwitnesses.Butÿheÿhadÿreportedÿhisÿwalletÿandÿidentificationas beingÿstolen.Afterÿeachÿwitness,ÿtheÿdefenseÿhasÿtheÿrightÿtocrossÿexamination.You’reÿtryingÿtoÿexposeÿeitherÿtheÿinconsistenciesorÿtheÿinaccuraciesÿorÿtheÿliesÿinÿtheÿwitness’stestimony.ÿAndÿyou’reÿallowedÿaÿlotÿmoreÿleewayonÿcrossÿexaminationÿtoÿleadÿtheÿwitness,ÿbecausetheÿwitnessÿisÿnoÿlongerÿfriendly.Regardingÿlatentÿprints–Afterÿcompletingÿtheÿcrossÿexamination,ÿtheprosecutorÿmayÿconduct aÿrebuttal,ÿorÿredirectexamination,ÿwhichÿservesÿtoÿclarifyÿorÿcorrectsomeÿpointsÿmadeÿduringÿtheÿcross.ÿAfterÿtheÿstatehasÿpresentedÿitsÿevidenceÿandÿwitnesses,ÿthedefenseÿcallsÿitsÿownÿwitnessesÿandÿtheÿprocessÿisreversed.ÿTheÿcaseÿpresentedÿbyÿtheÿdefenseusuallyÿfallsÿintoÿoneÿofÿthreeÿcategories.ÿThedefendantÿdidn’tÿcommitÿtheÿcrime,ÿthedefendantÿcommittedÿtheÿcrimeÿbutÿwasÿjustified,orÿtheÿdefendantÿcommittedÿtheÿcrimeÿbutÿcan’tbeÿheldÿresponsible.Eachÿcaseÿdependsÿonÿtheÿspecificÿcircumstancesofÿthatÿcase.ÿSoÿinÿsomeÿcases,ÿtheÿpersonÿonÿtrialclaims,ÿsometimesÿtruthfully,ÿsometimesÿnot,ÿjusttotalÿinnocence,ÿthatÿtheÿwrongÿpersonÿwasarrested.ÿInÿotherÿinstancesÿthereÿmightÿbeÿsomeevidenceÿofÿguilt,ÿbutÿit’sÿnotÿclear.ÿItÿdoesn’tÿrisetoÿaÿstandardÿof,ÿinÿlegalÿterms,ÿproofÿbeyondÿareasonableÿdoubt.Andÿasÿyouÿmightÿimagine,ÿinÿsomeÿcases,ÿthereÿissomeÿevidenceÿthatÿsupportsÿseveralÿofÿthose.Andÿit’sÿoftenÿbecauseÿwitnessesÿarecontradictory.ÿOneÿwitnessÿwill–ÿsometimeswitnessesÿperceiveÿthingsÿdifferently.ÿSometimeswitnessesÿareÿmistaken,ÿsometimesÿthey’redishonest.ÿSoÿthat’sÿtheÿtrialÿprocessÿisÿtoÿtryÿto,withÿbothÿsidesÿvigorouslyÿrepresentingÿtheirsides,ÿinÿhopesÿtoÿgetÿtoÿtheÿtruthÿofÿtheÿmatterÿsothatÿthere’llÿbeÿaÿjustÿresultÿinÿthe end.Witnessesÿcanÿplayÿaÿhugeÿroleÿinÿaÿcriminalÿcase.Sometimesÿwhenÿphysicalÿevidenceÿisÿlacking,theyÿprovideÿtheÿonlyÿinformationÿaboutÿthecrime.ÿTheyÿfallÿintoÿtwoÿcategories–ÿfactwitnessesÿandÿexpertÿwitnesses.Well,ÿa factÿwitnessÿisÿtoÿtestifyÿtoÿtheÿhistoricalfactsÿinÿthisÿcase.ÿWhatÿhappened,ÿwhatÿIÿsaw,whatÿIÿheard,ÿwhatÿIÿthink.ÿAndÿsoÿthey’reÿtalkingaboutÿtheÿactualÿfactsÿthatÿtheÿsidesÿareÿgoingÿtoprove.ÿAnÿexpert,ÿonÿtheÿotherÿhand,ÿisÿnottestifyingÿtoÿhistoricalÿfact.ÿHe’sÿtryingÿtoÿeducatetheÿjury,ÿorÿshe’sÿtryingÿtoÿeducateÿtheÿjuryÿonsomethingÿtheÿjuryÿwouldn’tÿotherwiseunderstand.ÿTheÿbestÿcontemporaryÿexampleÿofthatÿisÿprobablyÿDNAÿevidence.Anyoneÿwhoÿhasÿseen aÿcourtroomÿdramaÿonÿTVÿisfamiliarÿwithÿanÿattorneyÿcrying–Objection,ÿyour Honor.Anÿobjectionÿisÿmadeÿwhenÿanÿattorneyÿbelievesÿaquestionÿaskedÿbyÿtheÿopposingÿcounselÿisÿeitherimproperÿinÿtheÿwayÿit wasÿaskedÿorÿcallsÿforevidenceÿthatÿisÿnotÿadmissible.ÿItÿisÿupÿtoÿthejudgeÿtoÿsustainÿorÿoverruleÿtheÿobjection.Iÿdoÿlookÿatÿwhateverÿrule’sÿbeingÿcitedÿandÿIÿheartheÿarguments.ÿAnd then Iÿmakeÿa rulingÿbasedÿonwhatÿIÿbelieveÿtheÿlawÿto beÿonÿthatÿparticularissue.WeÿhaveÿprovenÿthatÿtheÿamountÿcarriedÿbyÿMr. Robbins—Once theÿevidenceÿphaseÿofÿtheÿtrialÿends,ÿbothsidesÿpresentÿtheirÿclosingÿarguments.ÿTheseallowÿtheÿprosecutorÿandÿtheÿdefenseÿattorneyanotherÿchanceÿtoÿtellÿtheÿstoryÿofÿtheirÿcase.ÿThistimeÿinÿitsÿentirety.Theÿclosingÿargumentÿisÿdesignedÿtoÿeducateÿortryÿtoÿconvinceÿtheÿjuryÿthatÿyou’veÿprovenÿwhatyouÿclaimedÿyouÿwereÿgoingÿtoÿproveÿinÿyouropeningÿstatement.ÿThatÿyouÿpresentedÿinÿtheopeningÿstatementÿyourÿtheoryÿof theÿcase,ÿyouputÿtheÿcaseÿon,ÿandÿnow,ÿthatÿIÿthinkÿI’veÿproventhisÿandÿthisÿisÿwhy.Myÿclientÿisÿinnocent–Theÿbottomÿlineÿisÿthatÿtheÿclosingÿargumentÿissuccessfulÿwhenÿitÿhelpsÿpersuadeÿtheÿmembersÿoftheÿjuryÿtoÿactÿinÿaÿwayÿtheÿprosecutorÿorÿdefenseattorneyÿwantsÿthemÿto.Nearÿtheÿendÿofÿtheÿtrial,ÿmembersÿofÿtheÿjuryÿaregivenÿspecificÿinstructionsÿaboutÿtheÿlawÿandÿhowtheyÿareÿtoÿmakeÿtheirÿdecision.Atÿtheÿconclusionÿofÿtheÿtrial,ÿitÿisÿtheÿjudge’sÿdutytoÿinstructÿtheÿjuryÿasÿtoÿtheÿlawÿthatÿtheyÿareÿtoapplyÿtoÿtheÿfactsÿthatÿthey’veÿdeterminedÿfromtheÿevidence.ÿButÿbeforeÿweÿgetÿtoÿthatÿstage,bothÿtheÿstateÿandÿtheÿdefenseÿareÿtoÿpresentÿtotheÿjudgeÿproposedÿinstructions.ÿAndÿtoÿarguethoseÿtoÿtheÿjudgeÿasÿtoÿwhatÿtheyÿbelieveÿisÿtheappropriateÿlawÿthatÿshouldÿbeÿtoldÿto theÿjuryÿin thatÿtrial.ÿAndÿthenÿultimately,ÿitÿisÿupÿtoÿtheÿjudgetoÿdecideÿwhatÿtoÿsayÿtoÿtheÿjury.Followingÿinstructions,ÿmembersÿofÿtheÿjuryÿbegintoÿdeliberate.ÿTheyÿareÿmoveÿtoÿaÿclosedÿroomwhereÿtheyÿdiscussÿtheÿevidenceÿinÿorderÿtoÿreachaÿverdict.ÿInÿaÿcriminalÿtrial,ÿtheÿjuryÿmayÿreturnwithÿaÿverdictÿofÿguiltyÿorÿnotÿguilty.ÿAndÿifÿtheÿjurycomesÿbackÿwithÿaÿunanimousÿverdictÿofÿnotguilty,ÿtheÿaccusedÿusuallyÿcan’tÿbeÿtriedÿagainÿfortheÿsameÿcrime.Ifÿthe juryÿcomes backÿnotÿguilty,ÿtheÿgame isÿup.Theÿgame’sÿover.ÿDoubleÿjeopardyÿbarsÿre-prosecutionÿexceptÿinÿveryÿlimitedÿcircumstances.Onceÿtheÿjuryÿsaysÿnotÿguilty,ÿthenÿthatÿmeansthatÿthereÿcanÿbeÿnoÿfurtherÿprosecutionÿonÿthatoffence,ÿorÿanyÿlesserÿincludedÿoffense.ÿTheÿonlyexceptionÿtoÿthatÿisÿwhereÿtheÿfactsÿchangeÿaftertheÿverdict.Contraryÿtoÿpopularÿopinion,ÿtheÿConstitutiondoesn’tÿrequireÿaÿverdictÿtoÿbeÿunanimous.ÿNordoesÿitÿrequireÿ12ÿpersonÿjuries.ÿSomeÿstatesÿusesixÿpersonÿjuries.ÿAlmostÿallÿrequireÿaÿunanimousverdict,ÿbutÿaÿfewÿrequireÿonlyÿ11ÿtoÿ1ÿorÿ10ÿtoÿ2.ÿIfaÿverdictÿofÿtheÿrequiredÿmajorityÿcan’tÿbereached,ÿnoÿmatterÿhowÿmuchÿtheÿjurorsdeliberate,ÿaÿhungÿjuryÿisÿdeclaredÿandÿtheÿjudgerulesÿaÿmistrial.Thenÿtheÿstateÿwillÿdecideÿwhetherÿorÿnotÿtheywantÿtoÿbeginÿtheÿprosecutionÿatÿanotherÿtime.Andÿweÿwouldÿhaveÿtoÿwaitÿuntilÿthatÿparticularjuryÿhasÿbeenÿdischargedÿandÿbeginÿanewÿatÿalaterÿdateÿandÿtime.Whenÿtheÿverdictÿhasÿbeenÿannounced,ÿorÿamistrialÿhasÿbeenÿdeclared,ÿtheÿtrialÿphaseÿisÿover.Ifÿtheÿjuryÿreturnsÿaÿverdictÿofÿnotÿguilty,ÿthedefendantÿisÿreleasedÿandÿisÿfreedÿfromÿthecriminalÿjusticeÿsystem.ÿIfÿtheÿdefendantÿhasÿbeenfoundÿguiltyÿofÿtheÿcrime,ÿtheÿpunishmentÿphasebegins,ÿknownÿasÿsentencing.ÿAÿsentenceÿdoesn’treferÿjustÿtoÿjailÿtime,ÿbutÿrefersÿtoÿanyÿkindÿofpunishment.ÿThereÿareÿmanyÿreasonsÿforimposingÿvariousÿpunishments.Thereÿareÿsomeÿpeopleÿyouÿlookÿat andÿifÿyoucouldÿlockÿthemÿupÿlongerÿthanÿyou could,ÿyouwould.ÿThereÿareÿothersÿwhoÿyouÿlookÿatÿandÿyouthinkÿmaybeÿthere’sÿsomethingÿthatÿweÿcouldÿdodifferentlyÿtoÿhelpÿthemÿchangeÿtheirÿlifestyle,ÿbuthaveÿthemÿunderÿcontrolÿatÿtheÿsameÿtime.ÿWehaveÿcertainÿconsiderationsÿforÿyouthfuloffenders.ÿPersonsÿwhoÿareÿconvictedÿofÿcrimeswho are underÿ24ÿmayÿbeÿtreatedÿdifferentlyÿorplacedÿinÿaÿdifferentÿfacilityÿthanÿourÿgeneralcriminalÿpopulation.ÿSoÿyouÿactuallyÿlookÿatÿsomanyÿfactorsÿwhenÿyouÿsentenceÿsomeone.Ifÿtheÿcrimeÿisÿaÿmisdemeanor,ÿtheÿjudgeÿcanÿpasssentenceÿfromÿtheÿbench.ÿOtherwise,ÿthereÿisÿasentencingÿhearing.ÿTheÿpurposeÿisÿtoÿallowvariousÿinterestedÿpartiesÿtoÿpresentÿevidenceÿandargumentsÿaboutÿwhatÿtheÿappropriateÿsentenceshouldÿbe.Judgesÿwantÿtoÿknowÿusuallyÿallÿtheyÿcanÿaboutwhoÿthey’reÿdealingÿwith.ÿAndÿwhyÿthisÿpersonmayÿorÿmayÿnot haveÿcommittedÿtheÿcrimeÿandwhatÿcouldÿbeÿtheÿmitigatingÿcircumstances.ÿI’vevisitedÿprisonsÿandÿjailsÿbeforeÿandÿIÿdon’tÿneverunderestimateÿtheÿfeelingÿoneÿgetsÿwhen they’reincarcerated.ÿSoÿit’sÿaÿseriousÿbusiness.Courtsÿmayÿalsoÿconsiderÿstatementsÿfromÿthevictimÿorÿtheÿfamilyÿaboutÿtheÿimpactÿtheÿcrimehasÿhadÿonÿtheirÿlives.ÿTheÿjudgeÿthenÿdeterminestheÿsentence.Inÿsomeÿplacesÿtheÿstatuteÿsetsÿaÿfirmÿsentence,ÿor itÿsetsÿaÿrange,ÿwhichÿtheÿjudgeÿcanÿpickÿinÿthatrange.ÿLet’sÿsayÿthat aÿsentence isÿ10ÿtoÿ40.ÿThejudgeÿcouldÿpickÿanythingÿinÿbetweenÿ10ÿtoÿ40.ÿIntheÿfederalÿsystemÿinÿsomeÿstates,ÿweÿhaveÿwhatareÿcalledÿfederalÿsentencingÿguidelines.ÿTheycomeÿfromÿtheÿfederalÿsentencingÿguidelinesÿbutstatesÿhaveÿadoptedÿthoseÿasÿwell.ÿAndÿwhatthoseÿareÿis aÿsetÿofÿfactors,ÿguidelinesÿreally,ÿthattheÿjudgesÿapplyÿtoÿdetermineÿwhatÿsentenceÿthedefendantÿdeserves.Sanctionsÿthatÿworkÿbestÿbalanceÿtheÿneedÿtoÿbeconsistentÿwithÿsentencesÿhandedÿdownÿinÿthepastÿwithÿtheÿneedÿtoÿtailorÿpunishmentÿandtreatmentÿtoÿtheÿindividualÿoffender.ÿTheÿprimarygoalÿisÿtoÿpunishÿtheÿguiltyÿandÿpreventÿfuturecrimes.ÿAÿcriminalÿcanÿdoÿtimeÿinÿjail,ÿpayÿaÿfine,ÿorreceiveÿotherÿpunishment.Ifÿtheÿcrimeÿisÿconsideredÿminor,ÿtheÿjudgeÿmaysentenceÿtheÿcriminalÿtoÿprobation,ÿwhichÿmeansbeingÿplacedÿunderÿcourtÿsupervision.ÿInÿthatcase,ÿtheÿcriminalÿmayÿnotÿspendÿanyÿtimeÿinprisonÿsoÿlongÿasÿtheÿconditionsÿofÿtheÿprobationareÿmaintained.ÿJustÿlikeÿanÿadult,ÿaÿjuvenilemaybeÿjailed,ÿimprisoned,ÿplacedÿinÿaÿtreatmentprogramÿorÿonÿprobation,ÿorÿbeÿrequiredÿtoÿpayÿafine.ÿAllÿdependingÿonÿtheÿseriousnessÿofÿthecrime.Theÿsystemÿinÿtheÿpastÿhasÿbeenÿwhat’sÿinÿtheÿbestinterestÿofÿtheÿchild?ÿPeriod.ÿThat’sÿtheÿfocus.ÿAscomparedÿtoÿadultÿprosecution,ÿit’sÿjustÿwhat’sÿin theÿbestÿinterestÿof theÿcommunity?ÿAndÿthat’showÿtheÿtraditionalÿdifference hasÿbeen.ÿIt’sÿaboutturningÿtheÿchildÿaround,ÿsolvingÿtheÿchild’sproblemsÿsoÿtheyÿdon’tÿgrowÿtoÿbeÿanÿadultcriminal.Inÿmostÿstates,ÿanyoneÿchargedÿwithÿcommittingÿacriminalÿactÿbeforeÿhisÿorÿherÿ17thÿorÿ18thbirthdayÿisÿinitiallyÿprocessedÿasÿaÿjuveniledefendant.Atÿbothÿtheÿstateÿandÿfederalÿlevels,ÿeveryoneÿhastheÿrightÿtoÿappealÿtheÿverdict.ÿIfÿtheÿdecisionÿisn’tacceptedÿbyÿbothÿparties,ÿoneÿcanÿaskÿtheÿCourtÿofAppealsÿtoÿhearÿtheÿcaseÿagain.ÿ,ÿHoweverÿthedefendantÿcan’tÿre-argueÿtheÿfactsÿorÿsubmitÿnewevidence.ÿIfÿaÿCourtÿofÿAppealsÿfindsÿthatÿanyerrorsÿoccurred,ÿitÿthenÿdecidesÿwhetherÿtheypreventedÿaÿfairÿtrial.ÿIfÿitÿfindsÿthatÿanÿerrorÿwasprejudicialÿorÿharmful,ÿitÿreversesÿtheÿconvictionandÿsendsÿtheÿcaseÿbackÿforÿaÿnewÿtrial.ÿThecourtsÿkeepÿrecordsÿofÿallÿproceedingsÿandÿallconvictions.ÿAndÿwhile aÿjuvenile’sÿrecordÿisusuallyÿsealedÿwhenÿheÿorÿsheÿreachesÿ18,ÿanadult’sÿrecordÿisÿusuallyÿpermanent.InÿtheÿUnitedÿStates,ÿtheÿcriminalÿcourtsÿsystemservesÿasÿtheÿvenueÿwhereÿdisputesÿareÿsettledandÿjusticeÿisÿadministered.ÿFromÿpretrialproceduresÿtoÿtheÿsentencingÿhearing,ÿtheÿrightsofÿtheÿdefendantÿmustÿbeÿbalancedÿagainstÿtherightsÿofÿtheÿvictimsÿandÿtheÿcommunity.ÿFindingtheÿrightÿbalanceÿisÿoftenÿdifficultÿandÿsubjectÿtocriticism.ÿButÿthisÿprocessÿisÿoneÿofÿtheÿgreateststrengthsÿofÿtheÿAmericanÿcriminalÿjusticeÿsystem.AÿlargeÿpartÿofÿwhatÿIÿdoÿisÿtoÿmakeÿcertainÿthatÿanaccusedÿunderstandsÿtheirÿconstitutionalÿrights.Andÿit’sÿfurtherÿmyÿjobÿtoÿmakeÿsureÿthatÿthoseconstitutionalÿrightsÿareÿguaranteedÿtoÿthemthroughoutÿtheÿprocessÿover whichÿIÿpreside.IÿthinkÿitÿwasÿThomasÿJeffersonÿsaidÿheÿwouldratherÿseeÿaÿhundredÿguiltyÿpeopleÿgoÿfreeÿthanoneÿinnocentÿpersonÿgoÿtoÿjail.ÿAndÿtheyÿweretalkingÿthatÿwayÿwhenÿtheyÿwroteÿtheConstitution.ÿAndÿsoÿinÿourÿcountryÿinÿourÿcriminaljusticeÿsystemÿweÿhaveÿrulesÿthatÿtheÿgovernmenthasÿtoÿfollowÿtoÿmakeÿsureÿthatÿpeopleÿareÿnotabusedÿand theÿinnocentsÿprotected,ÿwhileÿatÿthesameÿtimeÿmakingÿsureÿthatÿweÿkeepÿlawÿandorderÿinÿourÿsocietyÿandÿpeople areÿsafeÿinÿtheirhomesÿandÿproperty.You’re goingÿto be underÿarrest.ÿSir, Iÿneed you toput yourÿhands on theÿcar.Althoughÿlawsÿgrowÿmoreÿcomplex,ÿtheunderlyingÿprinciplesÿofÿAmericanÿcriminalÿjusticehaveÿgenerallyÿremainedÿconstant.ÿTheÿsystemwasÿfoundedÿuponÿdeterrence,ÿpunishment,ÿandrehabilitation.ÿAndÿwhetherÿwe areÿtalkingÿaboutpoliceÿofficers,ÿprosecutors,ÿjudges,ÿorÿjuries,ÿthecriminalÿjusticeÿsystemÿisÿgreatlyÿinfluencedÿbyÿitsdualÿroleÿtoÿensureÿtheÿrightsÿofÿindividualsÿwhileprotectingÿtheÿgoodÿofÿsociety.ÿAndÿalwaysÿwithintheÿframeworkÿofÿtheÿUnitedÿStatesÿConstitution.

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